Gettering and Defect Engineering in Semiconductor Technology XII

Volumes 131-133

doi: 10.4028/

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Authors: E.V. Kolesnikova, Evgenia V. Kalinina, Alla A. Sitnikova, M.V. Zamoryanskaya, T.P. Popova
Authors: Lyudmila I. Khirunenko, Yu.V. Pomozov, Mikhail G. Sosnin, A.V. Duvanskii, Vitor J.B. Torres, J. Coutinho, R. Jones, Patrick R. Briddon, Nikolay V. Abrosimov, H. Riemann
Abstract: The interstitial carbon impurity (CI) vibrational modes in monocrystalline Si-rich SiGe were investigated by Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy and density functional modelling. The two absorption bands of CI are found to be close to those in silicon, but show shifts in opposite directions with increasing Ge content. The transversal mode band at 932 cm-1 shifts slightly to the high frequency side, while the longitudinal mode at 922 cm-1 suffers a pronounced red-shift. Each Ci-related band is found to consist of two components. An annealing of CI in Si1-xGex occures in two stage. During the first stage (210-250 K) the main components of bands anneals and revealed components grow in intensity. At T>250 K all components disappear. Two component structure of bands is suppose most likely correspond to different combinations of Si and Ge atoms in the neighbourhood of the carbon atom. The interstitial carbon defect was modelled by a supercell density-functional pseudopotential method (AIMPRO) for alloys with 4.69% Ge concentration. From energetics, it has been found that each Ge-C bond costs at least 0.4 eV in excess of a Si-C bond. However, structures where Ge atoms are second neighbors to the C atom are marginally bound, and may explain the two-component band structure in the absorption measurements. The vibrational mode frequencies taken from several randomly generated SiGe cells produce the observed opposite shifts for the transverse and longitudinal modes.
Authors: M. Baran, N. Korsunska, L. Khomenkova, T. Stara, V. Khomenkov, Y. Goldstein, E. Savir, J. Jedrzejewski
Abstract: The effect of preparation conditions and annealing treatment on Si-rich-SiOx layers was investigated. It was observed that oxygen plays important role in the creation of light-emitting centres. It was found that the emission in the green-orange spectral range is connected with silicon oxide defects which contain dangling bonds. At the same time PL band in the infrared spectral range is caused by recombination of carriers in amorphous silicon or nanocrystalline one. It is shown that modification of defect content under various treatments gives the possibility to control the emission properties of the layers.
Authors: A.L. Quintos Vasques, T.V. Torchynska, G. Polupan, Y. Matsumoto-Kuwabara, L. Khomenkova, L.V. Shcherbyna
Abstract: This paper presents the results of PL spectrum studies for Si nano-crystallites embedded in amorphous silicon matrix. Investigated layers were deposited by the hot-wire CVD method on glass substrates at the wafer temperature 300°C and different filament temperatures from the range 1650-1950°C. It was shown that variation of temperatures of filament (hot-wire) allows to produce the films with desirable parameters. Using of X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence methods the correlation between some photoluminescence bands and the sizes of Si nano-crystallites as well as the amorphous phase volume was shown. The nature of light emission is discussed.
Authors: Nelly Burle, Bernard Pichaud, V.I. Vdovin, M.M. Rzaev
Abstract: First relaxation stages in Si1-x Gex layers on Si substrates are induced by annealing of metastable, low-temperature buffer layer samples and observed by X-ray topography (XRT). This method allows observing large area (several square millimetres) of a sample and reveals very low densities of defects, located in the layer as well as in the substrate. It allow to follow the evolution of the very first steps of the relaxation, starting with dislocation crosses which were characterized and evolving to misfit dislocation network by very low increases of thermal budget. It is proposed a nucleation mechanism of these crosses based on Frank loops due to point defects condensation which can transform locally in glide dislocations under the influence of the biaxial stress in the film.
Authors: I.V. Antonova, M.B. Gulyaev, R.A. Soots, V.A. Seleznev, V.Ya. Prinz
Abstract: The electrical properties of structures included 1-octadecene (CnH2n, n=18) monolayers deposed onto the oxide-free silicon surface or Si/SiGe/Si layers were analyzed as a function of surface pretreatment (hydrogen- or iodine-terminated silicon surface) and layer deposition regime (thermal- or photo-activated process). Two types of traps (for electrons and holes) were found at the interface between the monolayers and substrate. The density of traps was shown to depend on the, H- or I-termination of the silicon surface, the illumination intensity and deposition time during photo-activated deposition, and the temperature of thermal-activated deposition. The optimal regimes can be chosen for minimization of the surface charge in the structures covered with 1- octadecene monolayers, which provides a high conductivity of thin near-surface layers.
Authors: N.Yu. Arutyunov, Valentin V. Emtsev, E. Sayed, Reinhard Krause-Rehberg
Abstract: Angular correlation of annihilation radiation technique (ACAR) has been used for studying a microstructure of the vacancy-group-V-impurity complexes (DV) formed by irradiation with 60Co γ – rays at Tirr. ≈ 280K in oxygen-lean n-Ge doped with group-V-impurity atoms As, Sb, and Bi. The probability of annihilation of positrons with the core electrons of DV complexes to be reconstructed from ACAR spectra has been analyzed on the basis of Chapman-Kolmogorov formalism; the Coulomb repulsion is proved to regulate the penetration of a positron into Ge4+ and D5+ ion cores. In passing from AsV to SbV and BiV complexes the ion cores D5+ are found to contribute more effectively to the probability of the positron annihilation in the core region. These data correlate well with the augmentation of the entropy of ionization (4S ~ 2,9 ÷ 4,2K) observed by means of capacitance transient techniques with the use of Au-Ge Schottky barriers in the same row of a similar vacancy-impurity complexes. The results obtained by ACAR spectroscopy suggest the full-vacancy configuration of DV pair with relaxation of atoms inward towards the vacancy.
Authors: M. Kamruzzaman Chowdhury, B. Vissouvanadin, Mireia Bargallo Gonzalez, N. Bhouri, Peter Verheyen, H. Hikavyy, O. Richard, J. Geypen, H. Bender, Roger Loo, Cor Claeys, Eddy Simoen, V. Machkaoutsan, P. Tomasini, S.G Thomas, J.P. Lu, J.W. Weijtmans, R. Wise
Abstract: This paper presents an investigation of the impact of a Highly Doped Drain (HDD) implantation after epitaxial deposition on Si1-xGex S/D junction characteristics. While the no HDD diodes exhibit the usual scaling of the leakage current density with Perimeter to Area (P/A) ratio, this is not the case for the HDD diodes, showing a smaller perimeter current density JP for smaller window size structures, corresponding with larger P/A. This points to a lower density of surface states at the Shallow Trench Isolation (STI)/silicon interface, which could result from a lower compressive stress. In order to examine the role of the HDD implantation damage, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) inspections have been undertaken, which demonstrate the presence of stacking faults in small active SiGe regions. These defects give rise to local strain relaxation and, therefore, could be at the origin of the lower STI/Si interface state density. The window size effect then comes from the active area dependence of the implantation defect formation.
Authors: Marie-Laure David, Frédéric Pailloux, Michèl Drouet, Marie France Beaufort, Jean François Barbot, Eddy Simoen, Cor Claeys
Abstract: (001) n-type Ge has been implanted at given fluence and intermediate temperature with hydrogen ions using two processes: conventional in-line implantation and plasma based ion implantation. The as-created microstructure has been compared using transmission electron microscopy. In particular, it has been shown that the major differences observed are due to the implantation temperature, much higher during the PBII process. This suggests that plasma based ion implantation could be used for layer transfer in spite of a higher surface roughness observed after the PBII process.
Authors: Luc Lajaunie, Marie-Laure David, K. Opsomer, Eddy Simoen, Cor Claeys, Jean François Barbot
Abstract: In this study, Co germanide Schottky barrier diodes on n-Ge (100) substrate were fabricated by sputtering metal Co on Ge, followed by annealing in vacuum at 700°C. The influence of annealing time was investigated on both the electrical properties of Co germanide Schottky barrier diodes and on the phase formation on n-Ge (100) substrate. With increasing annealing times growing or transformation of germanide entities occurs leading to reduction of the trap concentration and therefore the leakage current.

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