Silicon Carbide and Related Materials 2004

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Authors: Evgenia V. Kalinina, G. Kholuyanov, G. Onushkin, D.V. Davydov, Anatoly M. Strel'chuk, Andrey O. Konstantinov, Anders Hallén, V.A. Skuratov, Andrej Yu. Kuznetsov
Abstract: The influence of the irradiation with neutrons, Kr+ (245 MeV) and Bi+ (710 MeV) ions on the optical and electrical properties of high-resistivity, high-purity 4H-SiC epitaxial layers grown by chemical vapor deposition was investigated using photoluminescence and deep-level transient spectroscopy. Electrical characteristics were studied using Al and Cr Schottky barriers as well as p+-n-n+ diodes fabricated by Al ion implantation on this epitaxial layers. It was found that both "light" neutrons and high energy heavy ions introduced identical defect centers in 4H-SiC. So, even at extremely high density of the ionization energy of 34 keV/nm, typical for Bi+ ion bombardment, damage structure formation in SiC single crystal is governed by energy loss in elastic collisions.
Authors: Masashi Kato, Shun Ichiro Tanaka, Masaya Ichimura, Eisuke Arai, Shun-ichi Nakamura, Tsunenobu Kimoto
Authors: Vitalii V. Kozlovski, Elena V. Bogdanova, Valentin V. Emtsev, Konstantin V. Emtsev, Alexander A. Lebedev, V.N. Lomasov
Abstract: A comparison study of radiation damage in n-type silicon grown by the floating zone technique and n-type silicon carbide grown by the sublimation epitaxy technique was carried out for the first time under the same irradiation conditions. This comparison is drawn for an energy region of fast electrons at ≈ 1 MeV where Frenkel pairs as primary defects, i e the self-interstials bound to their parent vacant sites at a distance of a few lattice spacings, are produced most effectively. The removal rates of charge carriers in n-Si and n-SiC (4H and 6H) were found to be about 0.23 cm-1 and 0.015 cm-1, respectively. The possible reasons of the observed difference are briefly discussed.
Authors: A. Lo Giudice, P. Oliveira, F. Fizzotti, Claudio Manfredotti, E. Vittone, Stefano Bianco, Giuseppe Bertuccio, R. Casiraghi, M. Jaksic
Abstract: The damage produced by 2 MeV protons on a 4H-SiC Schottky diode has been investigated by monitoring the charge collection efficiency as the function of the ion fluence. A new algorithm based on the Shockley-Ramo-Gunn theorem has been developed to interpret the experimental results. The fitting procedure provides a parameter which is proportional to the average number of active electrical traps generated by a single ion, which can be profitably used to estimate the radiation hardness of the material.
Authors: Peter J. Wellmann, Ralf Müller, Michel Pons, Aurelie Thuaire, Alexandre Crisci, Michel Mermoux, Laurent Auvray
Abstract: We have studied the application of optical techniques for the determination of the spatial distribution of electronic properties of highly aluminum doped p-type SiC wafers. Absorption and birefringence mapping are known to be sensitive characterization methods to determine the homogeneity of charge carrier concentration and defects in n-type SiC. In the case of highly p-type doped SiC these methods fail due to the opaque character of the material. In this paper we show that Raman spectroscopy which is a reflective method can be used in order to address the same materials properties like absorption and birefringence. The study was performed using medium doped p-type SiC:Al where optical transmission and reflection methods can be applied simultaneously.
Authors: Michael S. Mazzola, Swapna G. Sunkari, Janice Mazzola, Hrishikesh Das, Galyna Melnychuck, Yaroslav Koshka, Jeffery L. Wyatt, Jie Zhang
Abstract: Room temperature Fourier Transform Infrared Reflection Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to investigate the thickness and Free Carrier Concentration (FCC) of heavily and lightly doped 4H and 6H-SiC epitaxial films. Multiple epitaxial layer stacks typical of lateral devices such as the MESFET were grown on 6H-SiC semi-insulating substrates. The estimation of thickness and FCC of the n-channel epi layer is improved by studying the Longitudinal Optical Phonon Plasmon Coupled Modes (LPP). A modelbased analysis of the experimental reflectance spectra from these samples is performed using a dielectric function that accounts for the phonon-photon coupling and plasmonphoton coupling. The value of the LPP+ mode frequency estimated from the reflectance spectrum in the range 600-1200 cm-1 is observed to increase in direct correlation with the electron free-carrier concentration.
Authors: Julien Pernot, Sylvie Contreras, Jean Camassel, Jean-Louis Robert
Abstract: We report a detailed investigation of the electrical properties of p-type 4H-SiC. In the range 100 K-800 K we show that, both, the temperature dependence of the hole concentration and Hall mobility is satisfactorily described using the relaxation time approximation. Performing a detailed comparison of in-situ vs. implantation doping, we evidence an incomplete activation of the dose (about 50 ±10 %) with apparition of a large number of compensating centres in the implanted layers.
Authors: R.J. Kumar, Peter A. Losee, Can Hua Li, Joseph Seiler, I. Bhat, T. Paul Chow, J.M. Borrego, Ronald J. Gutmann
Abstract: A Microwave Photoconductivity Decay (M-PCD) technique which senses changes insample conductivity as carriers recombine following excitation by a laser pulse, has been used to determine the minority carrier recombination lifetime from the decay rate of carriers in 4H-SiC epitaxial layers. Decay times varying from 60 ns to 500 ns have been measured, with the decay increasing with thickness. Device simulations show that I-V characteristics of pin diodes fabricated with these epitaxial layers are compatible with the observed decay times.
Authors: L. Storasta, R. Aleksiejūnas, M. Sūdžius, Arunas Kadys, T. Malinauskas, Kęstutis Jarašiūnas, Björn Magnusson, Erik Janzén
Abstract: We applied four-wave mixing (FWM) technique for investigation of high temperaturechemical vapour deposition (HTCVD) grown 4H-SiC samples with different doping levels. The determined minority electron and hole mobilities in heavily doped crystals at doping densities of 1019 cm-3 were found to be equal to 116 and 52 cm2/Vs. In semi-insulating (SI) crystals, the ambipolar diffusion coefficient Da = 2.6 − 3.3 cm2/s and carrier lifetimes of 1.5 – 2.5 ns have been measured. Irradiation of SI crystals by 6 MeV electrons resulted in essential decrease of carrier lifetime down to ~ 100 ps and clearly revealed the defect-assisted carrier generation with respect to two-photon interband transitions before irradiation.
Authors: K. Neimontas, R. Aleksiejūnas, M. Sūdžius, Kęstutis Jarašiūnas, Peder Bergman
Abstract: We applied picosecond four-wave mixing technique to investigate carrier diffusion and recombination in n-type 4H-SiC epilayers. The dependence of bipolar diffusion coefficient D on photocarrier density was measured in range from ~ 1017 to ~ 1020 cm-3. We determined a decrease of D value from 3.4 to 2.2 cm2/s with increase of the photoexcitation level in range from ~ 1017 to ~ 1019 cm-3, and found its increase up to 3.8 cm2/s at carrier density above 1020 cm-3. Auger recombination governed decrease of carrier lifetime from 11 ns at ~ 1017 cm-3 to 1.8 ns at ~ 1020 cm- 3 has also been observed.

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